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Levels of efficacy are based on guidelines from the The Cochrane Collaboration (http://www.cochrane.org), Evidence-Based Medicine (https://ebm.bmj.com) and the Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/subject/code/000054):
Reference: Tan et al. Evidence-Based Practice in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback, Chpt 2.
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Sort the below features in their order of efficacy, from lowest (efficacy level 1) to highest (efficacy level 5):
No-treatment, active treatment, or sham (placebo)
Statistically superior to sham or alternative bona fide treatment
Observational, clinical, wait-list controlled, within-subject, intra-subject replication
Observation in a single group only
Case observations only
Place your guess between 1 and 5, with 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest, to where you think this feature lies:
Randomisation of participants to study conditions is required to reach an efficacy level of .
Which type of study is needed for the efficacy level 2 (POSSIBLY EFFICACIOUS)?
Which are two features essential for the outcome measures?
Do you think that statistical power depends on these two factors:
* Sample size
* Effect size
Place the feature you think has the higher level of efficacy above the feature you think has the lower level of efficacy:
>1 study, and from independent research settings